You have a half penny from Great Britain. This series runs during Queen Victoria's long reign, starting in 1838 and ending in 1901. Different versions of the coin bear the queen's likeness at various stages of her life, but the inscription always says Victoria DG (DG = Dei Gratia = by the grace of God). This page applies to farthings, pennies and half pennies dated between 1860 and 1894 that look like the coin shown.
FARTHING: 19 mm diameter
Sacagawea dollars are made of pure copper with an outer coating of manganese-brass. They are not gold (too bad!). They are worth one dollar in the United States. If you can find a coin in perfect, fully uncirculated condition, a collector might pay a few US dollars to add it to his or her collection.
From WikiSpaces: Beginning with the Achaemenian Dynasty and the leadership of King Darius I, the Persian Empire was able to demonstrate an impressive and unique artistic style and technique. During the Sasanian period (from which this coin comes), Persians were able to improve artwork. Coins and glass objects provide evidence for this transition and reveal the changes that the Persian Empire went through after the collapse of the Sasanian dynasty. Sasanian coins can be described as original works of art, unique and distinctive to the Persian Empire. Coinage at the end of the Sasanian period was mainly characterized by the royal portrait, inscription in Pahlavi around the king’s face, and the Zoroastrian fire-altar on the reverse. All of these visual aspects were soon impacted by the transition to Islam.
Constantine X Doukas was an old man when he came to power in 1059 AD. He made the poor decision of trying to save money by disbanding local garrisons and militia, instead counting on agreements with mercenaries if the need of defense should arise. This didn't work out, and over the course of Constantine X's reign, the Byzantine empire lost territory to the Normans in Italy, the Bulgars in Bulgaria, the Seljuks in Turkey, and the Oghuz Turks in the Balkans.
These medium-sized gold coins were made of old remelted issues, and they often carry impurities in the form of silver, bits of copper, or electrum (a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver). The Greek inscriptions read '+IhS IXS REX REGNANTINM' (Jesus Christ, king of kings') on the obverse (convex side), and 'KWN RACΛ O DOVKAC' (Con[stantine] ???? Doukas) on the reverse (concave side). In David R. Sear's catalog of Byzantine coins, this type is found as #1847. Sometimes there's an X on the shaft of the standard, but this doesn't change value.
Nice coin, sir or madam. You have a United States trade dollar which were issued between 1873 and 1885 for use overseas. These coins carry no mint mark, S mint marks, and CC mint marks, and the CC mint marks are the most valuable (like yours!) There are also plenty of counterfeit trade dollars (see below) -- fakes are worth zero.
In average circulated condition, with scratches and stains as you describe, figure a catalog value of $50 to $200 US dollars, depending on the severity of the scratch and stain damage. You see damaged traded dollars a lot; the un-damaged ones are much more valuable. Be sure you understand what 'catalog' means. It is a weasel word, as explained under the Important Terminology link at the upper left.
These are two of many different medals and tokens made to commemorate the Confederate States of America. The dollars and half dollars that look like our photo are modern novelty pieces and not a real coins. As far as we know, these were only made out of base metal and do not contain any precious metal. Values are low
A collector might pay $10 to $15 (U.S. dollars) for a nice, undamaged example. A coin dealer may offer a dollar or two.